Circinaria gyrosa Sohrabi, Sipman, V. John & V.J. Rico | MYCO-LICH

Circinaria gyrosa Sohrabi, Sipman, V. John & V.J. Rico

IUCN Threat Status: 
Near Threatened

Diagnosis. Thallus vagrant, more or less globose, brainlike, deeply divided into short and coralloid, surface dull brown, brownish grey, sometimes whitish grey, pale olivebrown to pale brown. Very similar to Circinaria affinis, but differentiated by its shorter conidia (10–15 μm), wider distribution in the highland (1000-2000 m) or steppe mountains of the Mediterranean region and monophyletic poistion of the nuclear ribosomal ITS phylogeny analysis.
Type. Iran. East Azerbaijan, Marand district, 32 km N of Marand towards Jolfa, 38° 40.58' N, 45° 39.44' E., 1440 m, 2 Nov. 2007, M. Sohrabi 10085, H. Sipman, U. Søchting&M. R. Asef, (IRAN 14444, holotype; B, H, hb. M. Sohrabi, isotypes).


Thallus morphology. vagrant, more or less globose, 0.5–2 cm tall and 0.5–2(–3) cm broad, brain-like, deeply divided into short and coralloid, flattened lobes or folds 1–3 mm broad, with rimose-verrucose surface, rather flattened on top. Surface dull brown, brownish grey, sometimes whitish grey, pale olive-brown to pale brown, on covered sides usually darkish green to dark brown, greenish brown or almost dark greenbrown (sometimes reddish brown when ferriferous components are present in soil). Pseudocyphellae very common, visible as whitish spots usually along or on top of the folded lobes. Cortex (40–)60–90(–110) μm thick, outer part paraplectenchymatous, ± brown, c. 2–3 cells thick, cells (4–)5–7 (–8) μm in diam., inner part indistinct, mixed with prosoplectenchymatous tissue of medulla, sometimes forming a distinct layer (30–)40–80(–90) μm tall (variable presence of algal cells in the medulla layer makes it uneven, poorly delimited and difficult to distinguish from the true cortex layer). Epinecral layer 1–5(–12) μm thick. Photobiont chlorococcoid, cells 5–22 μm in diam., clustered in small groups, each group up to 80–180×50–110 μm broad.
Medulla white, I–, 0.3–4(–6) mm thick, containing crystals of calcium oxalate. Apothecia aspicilioid, rare, up to 0.5–1.5 (–2) mm wide, among the lobes in older parts. Disc black to brown-black, pruinose, concave to convex when young, becoming more flat when old. Thalline exciple flat to ± elevated and prominent in older apothecia, entire, concolorous with thallus or with a thin to thick white rim. True exciple (35–)45–75(–85) μm wide, I ± more or less blue, uppermost cells brown, ± globose, 4–5(–7) μm in diam. Epihymenium brown, K+, colour fading from brown to light yellowish green, N + pale green (caesiocinerea-green).
Hymenium hyaline, occasionally with few oil drops, (100–)110–140(–150) μm tall. Paraphysoids branched, apically moniliform to submoniliform, with upper cells ± globose, 4–7 μm wide, and lower cells cylindrical, 4–9×2– 3 μm wide, usually branched. Hypothecium and subhymenium pale, (35–)45–65(–85) μm thick, I + blue. Asci broadly clavate, (80–)90–100(–110)×25–35 μm, with thick apical dome 20–30 μm tall, 2–4(–5) spored. Ascospores hyaline, simple, globose to subglobose, (16–)19–[22.1]–24(–26)× (16–)19–[21.6]–23(–25) μm (n030). Pycnidia immersed (sometimes occurring in pseudocyphellae), single, stretched flask-shaped, internal wall colourless, with black to brownish ostiole. Conidia filiform, straight to very slightly curved, (8–) 10–14(–18)×1–1.2 μm (n0132).

Chemistry. All spot-tests (K, C, KC, CK, P) negative both in the cortex and medulla.
TLC and HPLC. No substances detected. UV: Negative. Etymology. The specific epithet ‘gyrosa’ refers to the
brain-like lobes of the thallus.