Candelariella Müll. Arg. | MYCO-LICH

Candelariella Müll. Arg.

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The genus Candelariella Müll. Arg. in Iran
Mohammad Sohrabi
Martin Westberg
Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran, Iran
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden

Thallus: bullate to lobate to rosulate to squamulose, sometimes forming rosettes squamules: rounded to lobate, sometimes raised from the substrate; lobes: crenate to incised, up to c. 1 mm long surface: yellow to orange yellow, smooth to coarse cortex: pseudoparenchymatous, 5-15 µm thick Apothecia: common, lecanorine, 0.4-1.2(2.2) mm wide disc: darker yellow than the thallus, flat to somewhat convex margin: thick, entire to crenulate, persistent exciple: thin, not visible from the outside epihymenium: yellow-brown hymenium: hyaline below, 60-70 µm tall; paraphyses: simple or sometimes branched above, cylindrical or swollen apically with up to 5 µm wide tips; hypothecium: hyaline asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: hyaline, simple to 1-septate, oblong to narrowly ellipsoid, 11-21 x 5-6.5 µm Pycnidia: common, appear as darker yellow warts on the thallus conidia: hyaline, oblong to ellipsoid, 2.5-3.5 x 1.5 µm Spot tests: K+ reddish, KC-, C- Secondary metabolites: calycin, pulvinic acid, pulvinic dilactone and vulpinic acid. Substrate and ecology: mostly on calcium-free rocks, but sometimes also on more calcium-rich rocks, rarely on wood and tree bases World distribution: western North America Iranian distribution: on rocks in East Azerbijan, Khorasan,Tehran, Kerman, and Zanjan. Notes: Candelariella rosulans is a common species north of the Mexican border. Although variable in appearance, it is normally lobate and sometimes forms rosulate thalli. The spores are usually ±oblong and never have pointed ends. Compared to C. "complanata", it has a thicker, more convex thallus and broader spores. Often it grows together with C. citrina and the color difference between the two species is usually significant.

Key to Species: 

1. Thallus placodioid forming effigurate rosettes with ditinct marginal lobes......................................... 2

1. Thallus not placodioid, not forming rosettes, if lobate then lobes scattered and not forming distinct rosettes             5

 

2. Thallus centrally dissolving into granular soredia...................... C. medians

2. Thallus without soredia................................. 3

 

3. Asci polyspored, arctic.................... C. arctica

3. Asci 8-spored, in arid, temperate regions..................... 4

 

4. Lobes 1–2 mm long, mostly strongly cnvex and pruinose................ C. rhodax

4. Lobes up to 3 mm long, flttened and slightly convex, not pruinose....................... C. senior

 

5. Thallus on bark or wood........................................... 6

5. Thallus on rocks or soil, mosses and plant debris........................... 11

 

6. Thallus grey or indistinct (always 8-spored)............. 7

6. Thallus yellow (mostly polyspored species)............................ 8

 

7. Thallus a continous crust to amorphous or indistinct.................................. C. antennaria

7. Thallus mainly of small up to 0.15 mm wide granules...................... C. viae-lactea

 

8. Thallus sorediate, soredia to c. 50 µm diam; asci 8-spored..................... C. reflexa

8. Thallus not sorediate, but sometimes uniformly small granular (granules 50–100 µm diam.); asci polyspored         9

 

9. Thallus uniformly granular, thalline margin granular, often excluded ................................................ C. xanthostigma

9. Thallus areolate to minutely subsquamulose, thalline margin entire, persistent................................ 10

 

10. Apothecia up to 0.4 mm diam.; proper margin indistinct; thallus of minute, flattened areoles, forming small, up to 5 mm wide, yellow-green yellow patches........................ C. lutella

10. Apothecia 0.3–0.8 mm diam.; proper margin distinctly visible; thallus areolate to subsquamulose, often forming up to several cm wide bright yellow patches............. C. vitellina

 

11. Thallus on rocks or on soil, mosses or other lichens over rocks.......................... 12

11. Thallus on soil, mosses or plant debris on the ground, alpine species................. 15

 

12. Asci 8-spored.......... C. aggregata

12. Asci polyspored or sterile........................ 13

 

13. Thallus squamulose, distinctly raised from substrate; hymenium >90 µm tall, green yellow to pale yellow, squamules granular to flattened, with a pulverulent surface....... ...... C. placodizans

13. Thallus granular to areolate, adnate to the substrate; hymenium up to 90 µm tall, Thallus of minute, up to 0.5 mm wide, effigurate, subsquamulose areoles......................... 14

 

14. Thallus thin to thick, of scattered to crowded areoles, sometimes forming pulvinate crusts composed of weakly incised areoles/squamules; thallus yellow to orange yellow............................ C. vitellina

14. Thallus forming a thick. pulvinate crust composed of strongly incised, almost coralloid to granular squamules; thallus orange yellow ...................... C. kuusamoënsis

 

15. Thallus yellow....................... 16

15. Thallus grey or apparently lacking (always 8-spored)................ 23

 

16. Apothecia present................... 17

16. Apothecia lacking............ 21

 

17. Asci polyspored.................................... 18

17. Asci 8-spored..................................... 19

 

18. Thallus forming coralloid cusions.................... C. coralliza

18. Thallus formed by adpressed,weakly incised areoles or subsquamules............................................ C. vitellina

 

19. Thallus shiny; cortex pseudoparenchymatous, 25–60 µm thick; gelatinous epicortex present.................................... C. kansuensis

19. Thallus matte; cortex indistinct to pseudoparenchymatous, 25 µm thick; gelatinous epicortex absent     20

 

20. Thallus often indistinct, of small, scattered to crowded, convex areoles, on calcareous rocks,.... C. aurella

20. Thallus distinct and well-developed, squamulose to rosulate, of convex areoles to lobate squamules; mostly on siliceous rocks        C. rosulans

 

21. Thallus coralloid and often cusion-forming, squamules deeply incised with finger-like lobes to so strongly branched that they appear granular......................................... C. coralliza

21. Thallus areolate to squamulose, squamules sometimes imbricate but not coralliod or finger-like               22

 

22. Thallus of minute, up to 0.5 mm wide, effigurate, subsquamulose areoles...................................... C. vitellina

22. Thallus larger, more distinctly lobate-squamulose, lobes up to 1 mm long ..................................... C. rosulans

 

23. Apothecia with a yellow thalline margin; thallus often indistinct, of small, scattered to crowded, convex areoles   C. aurella

23. Apothecia with a grey thalline margin outside a yellow proper margin; thallus distinct, as a grey, thin to thick crust              24

 

24. Thallus thick, subsquamulose to squamulose, squamules dividing centrally, spores 13–18 x 4–5 µm.............. C. plumbea

24. Thallus thin, areolate to minutely subsquamulose, squamules entire, spores 15–25 x 4–7....................... C. oleaginsecens

 

 

Reference: 
  • Westberg, M 2004: Candelariella. - In: Nash, TH, III/Ryan, BD/Diederich, P/Gries, C/Bungartz, F (eds.): Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, pp. 46-53.
  • Arup, U/ Westberg, M 2005: Candelariella medians new to Sweden. - Graphis Scripta 17(1): 1-2.
  • Westberg, M. 2007: Candelariella (Candelariaceae) in western United States and northern Mexico: the 8-spored, lecanorine species. - The Bryologist 110(3): 391-419.
  • Westberg M, & Sohrabi, M. 2012: A conspectus of the lichen genus Candelariella in southwest Asia with emphasis on Iran. Nova Hedwigia 95: 531-546
citation: 

Sohrabi, M. & Westberg, M. (2010) The genus Candelariella Müll. Arg. in Iran.  http://www.myco-lich.ir/ Retrieved date 04/07/2020.