Parmelia sulcata Taylor | MYCO-LICH

Parmelia sulcata Taylor

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Kingdom: 
Fungi Bartling 1830
Phylum: 
Ascomycota Caval.-Sm. 1998
Subphylum: 
Pezizomycotina O.E. Erikss. & Winka 1997
Class: 
Lecanoromycetes. O.E. Erikss. & Winka 1997
Order: 
Lecanorales Nannf. 1932
Family: 
Parmeliaceae Zenker 1827
Genus: 
Parmelia Ach. 1803
Species: 
Parmelia sulcata Taylor, in Mackay, Fl. Hibern. 2: 145 (1836)
Synonymy : 
Parmelia saxatilis var. sulcata (Taylor) Nyl.
Nutritional mode: 
eutroph
Air pollution sensitivity: 
Intermediate to Tolerant

Thallus: adnate, foliose, 4-20 cm in diam., lobate lobes: sublinear, contiguous to imbricate, elongate, plane, separate, 2-4 mm wide, apices truncate upper surface: gray, smooth to strongly foveolate, shiny, sometimes white pruinose, becoming cracked along prominent, effigurate pseudocyphellae soredia: granular, abundant, laminal, in linear soralia; isidia, pustulae and dactyls absent medulla: white with continuous algal layer lower surface: black, rhizinate; rhizines moderately dense, black, simple Apothecia: rare, laminal, 2-8 mm wide; margin: usually sorediate; disc: dark brown asci: clavate, 8-spored ascospores: ellipsoid, 11-14 x 6-8 µm Pycnidia: infrequent, immersed conidia: bacilliform, 6-8 x 1 µm Spot tests: upper cortex K+ yellow, C-, KC-, P+ yellow; medulla K+ yellow turning deep red, C-, KC-, P+ orange Secondary metabolites: upper cortex with atranorin and chlorotranorin; medulla with salazinic acid (major) and consalazinic acids (minor). Substrate and ecology: common on trees in open habitats, occasionally on rocks World distribution: pantemperate and southern boreal